The Bourbon dynasty of the Two Sicilies, also known as the Kingdom of Naples, is one of the Italian branches of the Bourbon family that reigned over the Kingdom of Sicily and Naples from 1734 to 1861.
The reign of Charles of Bourbon has been defined as "the most beautiful hour", the golden age in the history of the Neapolitan. In fact, he returned to the city of Naples its ancient independence after more than two centuries of foreign domination (characterized by the Spanish and then Austrian "Viceroyalty"), inaugurating a period of political rebirth, economic recovery and cultural development. The concept of protection of artistic and cultural heritage sees in this “enlightened sovereign” a valid representative, who promoted and valued the artistic beauties of his time and of the past. The architectural works created during his reign remain majestic: from the Royal Theater of San Carlo, to the palaces of Portici and Capodimonte, to the royal residence of Caserta (which rivaled Versailles for magnificence). In 1738 the great archaeological researches began which brought to light the ancient and suggestive cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabia.